British Columbia has more first nations than any other province, but, nevertheless, almost none of the provinces are covered by historic land-sharing treaties with the government. Related organizations include the Assembly of First Nations and the Manitoba Commission on Treated Relations. However, First Nations inhabitants represented 32.7 percent of the total population of the Northwest Territories, 19.8 percent of the total population of Yukon, and about 10 percent of the population of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Geographical isolation has socially and economically segregated Manitoba's First Nations communities from the Manitoba mainstream.
The largest First Nations population is in Ontario (236,680), followed by British Columbia (172,520) and Alberta (136.58). This poses unique challenges in the region in relation to economic development and service delivery, as First Nations economies have historically depended on federal transfers.