What are first nation canadians called?

Indigenous Peoples is a collective name for the native peoples of North America and their descendants. Aboriginal peoples are also often used. But thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, there were still people living in Canada. Canadian aborigines, also known as Canadian natives, the First Nations of Canada, the indigenous Canadians or the Canadian Indians, are the current descendants of the first human inhabitants of North America.

The First Nation is one of three groups of indigenous peoples in Canada, the other two being the Mestizos and the Inuit. Article 35 of the Constitutional Act of 1982 states that the aboriginal peoples of Canada include Indian (First Nations), Inuit and mixed race peoples. While the terminology used by the Government can be a good guide to understanding the differences between mixed-race, Inuit and First Nations (all of them included in the terms “aboriginal” or “indigenous”), the best guideline comes directly from indigenous peoples. In 1982, the National Brotherhood of India became the Assembly of First Nations, the political voice of First Nations peoples in Canada.

Nationally, First Nations children are nearly four times more likely to live in poverty than non-indigenous and non-racialized children. Missionary work aimed at the aborigines of Canada had been ongoing since the first missionaries arrived in the 17th century, mostly from France, some of whom were martyred (Jesuit saints are called Canadian martyrs). Following Canada's acquisition of Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territory in 1870, the First Nations and the Crown signed the eleven numbered treaties between 1871 and 1921.Today, it is a common perception that Aboriginal peoples in Canada have the right to self-government to provide an opportunity to manage historical, cultural, political, health and economic control aspects within First Nations communities. However, some Canadian laws may contradict this, for example, Indian law establishes 35 (, the governor in Council may, instead of the province, authority or corporation keeping the land without the consent of the owner, authorize the transfer or concession of the land to the province, authority or corporation, subject to the conditions prescribed by the governor in Council).

First Nations and Inuit organizations varied in size, from gang societies of a few people to multinational confederations such as the Iroquois. At the end of the 19th century, the Canadian government colonized the vast western half of northern North America with waves of white settlers and, to make room for them, the indigenous nations of this region were tricked into signing even more land surrender treaties. Not only is the name Indian commonly used in everyday conversations without blinking or grimacing, but the two most prominent organizations that represent the original inhabitants of North America are the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) and the American Indian Movement (AIM). An Indian reservation (or reservation) is a legally protected area of land, defined by a treaty, in which Aboriginal Canadians can live in a state that is semi-exempt from various federal and provincial laws and participate in an autonomous society organized according to native traditions.

However, two court cases have clarified that Inuit, Mestizos and First Nations peoples without status are included in the term Indians in the Constitutional Act of 1867.The aboriginal peoples of Canada are divided into some 50 nations or historic tribes, which are groups defined by lineage and culture, which are then divided into more than 600 smaller bands, which are more of a political community. Among First Nations peoples (as well as among indigenous peoples, in general), socio-economic conditions have been affected by the dispossession of cultural traditions, social inequalities, prejudice and discrimination. .

Dominic Bélanger
Dominic Bélanger

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